The module introduces the issues of multifunctional agriculture as a direction of rural development and the possibility of creating new jobs in the countryside. In particular, it concentrates on the conditions for the development of female entrepreneurship. The issue is related to the values of the village’s cultural heritage.
You will be able to identify the direction of contemporary rural development in Europe and comprehend the conditions and meaning of the different types of multifunctional farming linked to cultural heritage for sustainable rural economy and improving the employability of rural women.
You will be able to seek opportunities to develop your own multifunctional farming and cultural heritage business including the ability to use EU support instruments.
Role of women in the EU
► Gender equality is a fundamental value of the European Union already expressed in the Treaty of Rome of 1957, which lays down the principle of equal pay for the same work. Europe is currently one of the safest and most just places in the world for women.
EU ACTION FOR WOMEN
To read more about:
The EU provides funding for a broad range of projects and programmes covering areas such as:
► Agriculture and environment: The EU has a range of policies to address issues faced by farming such as climate change, biodiversity loss and other challenges to natural resources.
► Direct support and transparency: The CAP Direct Payments system provides support for farm incomes, linked to respecting a range of EU rules, including the new “Greening” requirements.
► Rural development: The EU’s rural development programmes help people and companies in rural areas address economic, environmental and social challenges and opportunities.
► Organic farming: EU laws ensure that ‘organic’ means the same for consumers and producers, with EU-wide regulations that cover the organic farming supply chain.
► Quality of farming products: EU quality schemes, such as geographical indications, protect and guarantee a particular know-how and a specific link with a geographical area.
► Trade and promotion: The EU food sector has been able to expand exports, helped by EU trade agreements and enhanced promotion activities on non-EU markets.
► Forestry: EU rural development funds support the implementation of sustainable forest management by EU countries, also improving competitiveness and creating jobs.
► Agricultural markets and analysis: With a more market-oriented sector, market transparency and analysis is needed to anticipate trends, while certain policy tools remain available.
Management of funds
► Over 76% of the EU budget is managed in partnership with national and regional authorities through a system of “shared management”, largely through 5 big funds - the Structural & Investment Funds.
► Collectively, these help to implement the Europe 2020 strategy.
The 9 objectives of the future CAP are:
Source: The 9 CAP objectives
Key aspects of the proposals:
How does the eu help women in the world of work?
► The EU takes into account the specific needs of women in various spending programmes and policies, and the European Social Fund helps millions of people facing different challenges improve their employability every year.
► Specific actions to help women find a job include retraining and upgrading programmes. The fund also enables women to return to work after a career break, e.g. by providing high-quality childcare and individual counselling, and by improving employers’ awareness of the challenges women face. The European Social Fund supports projects in your country. These numerous successful initiatives contribute to real changes in the lives of citizens.
► Projects funded in EU regions create new opportunities for women by providing them with access to finance, personalised support or advice to start a business. Programmes and projects are also implemented in your country or region.
► The WEgate platform is a one-stop shop for women who want to start or develop a business. It contains information on training, mentoring, consulting and networking. You can also find information on how EU loans and venture capital enable people to set up or develop a business.
► The EU is also taking action to increase women’s participation in the digital sector by breaking stereotypes, promoting education and training in digital skills, and encouraging more female entrepreneurs to be active in the sector. The European Network for Women in the Digital Sector was created in 2018 so that girls and women active in this sector can create networks and collaborate on ideas and experiences in this field. Around 20 technology companies have also committed to creating an inclusive and gender-friendly work culture and environment.
► The EU is also committed to reducing the gender gap in research and innovation. For example, under Horizon 2020, it supports research organisations and universities in implementing gender equality plans. The European Innovation Prize awarded every year is an expression of recognition for women who are not only outstanding scientists and innovators, but also successful entrepreneurs. The EU is also working to improve women’s employment in other sectors such as transport.
Support tools for female entrepreneurs
► The Commission supports several tools such as networks and an e-platform helping women become entrepreneurs and run successful businesses:
► WEgate-platform: a one-stop-shop for women entrepreneurship
Applying for funding
Farmers & rural businesses
Even though there are more women than men in Europe, female entrepreneurs represent only a third of the self-employed in the EU. There are some additional factors (such as reconciling business and family) that make entrepreneurship a less attractive option for them than for men. The European Commission is working with EU countries to overcome these and encourage more women to start their own companies.
Current situation of female entrepreneurs in the EU:
Main challenges faced by female entrepreneurs
When establishing and running a business, women face challenges such as:
What the Commission does
► The EU Prize for Women Innovators is awarded to women who have received EU research and innovation funding at some point in their careers, and recently founded or co-founded a successful company based on their innovative ideas. See the 2017 winners.
► Study on “Statistical data on Women entrepreneurs in Europe” (3 MB) (2014). Data shows that women entrepreneurs constitute 29% of entrepreneurs (11.6 million) in Europe. Since 2008 there has been an increase of women entrepreneurs in the EU of 3%. Women represent the majority of one-person enterprises in the EU (78%) and they prefer to set up businesses in the area of health, social-work activities, services or education. The study was carried out in the EU plus Albania, North Macedonia, Iceland, Israel, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey.
► See the individual country files
Good pracices vs. good examples
The educational farm “Pszczółki” benefited from the support of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture for the possibility of submitting applications for aid under the sub-measure “Support for investments in the processing of agricultural products, trade in them or their development” covered by the Rural Development Programme for 2014-2020 by farmers or the spouses of these farmers to carry out or undertake activities in the field of processing and sale of processed agricultural products as part of agricultural retail trade and agro-training for older people for establishing or running care farms based on 12 universal scenarios of activities.
► Read more HERE: Educational farm “Pszczółki”
Olea Cosmetics originally emerged as an association of 7 women from Pegalajar, who decided to produce cosmetic products based on Olive Oil. The strong financing necessary to produce, as well as the need to be able to bill their sales, led them to set up as a limited company, since this legal structure was the simplest in case of liquidating the company. Initially they had to face a large financing of more than 400k Euros, which forced them to look for different sources of financing. They had EU funds from the LEADER programme but additionally they needed private third-party financing through banks.
► Read more HERE: Olea cosmetics
Multifunctional farming is defined as obtaining added value of the basic agricultural activity by introducing additional functions based on the resources of an agricultural holding.
Multifunctional Agriculture (MFA)
Multifunctional Farming (MF)
Source: Jan Douwe van der Ploeg,Wageningen University and Research Centre, the Netherlands
Source: Wagenigen University & Research
Multifunctional Agriculture (MFA)
Agritourism joins Farming & Tourism services
Basic tourism services:
Additional tourism services:
► Sample: Andreja Bijzak
Andreja, together with her husband, runs a company whose main activity is sustainable rural tourism (accommodation, local cuisine, wellness). They also organise open days, various educational activities and forest pedagogy in the Fairytales Park.
Didactic farm joins Farming & Education services
The Potočnik Poprask Organic Farm has held an organic certificate for 20 years, it is a mixed, self-sufficient farm.
Tatjana transferred her experiences from school to a farm where she receives school groups to which she imparts knowledge of farm work as part of the cultural heritage of the countryside. She participates in shepherd’s days, she organizes sheep shear with neighbors help, for student’s groups.
Green Care joins Farming & Care services
54 ha Poličar’s farm, run by Andreja Jagodic and her husband, is the most known for award winning dairy goods oeform “kajmak” and curd, milk, yoghurt and a rich variety of cheeses.
Most products are sold directly at home, in some co-operative shops and inns, and at various events where they sold in a special trailer with a built-in refrigerator.
Along with dairy products, they sell eggs, potatoes and vegetables. For extra income they are running a museum of millstones, one of its kind in Slovenia. Their slogan is: Everything we provide, we eat. Everything we eat, we offer to you. On our table in our store.
Women role in MF
The European Parliament stresses the importance of multifunctionality as a concept, involving other economic, social, cultural and environmental activities in rural areas accompanying agricultural production which generate employment for women in particular; encourages the Member States, therefore, to promote measures to diversify activities, such as direct sales of products, social services, care services and agritourism;
considers, in view of the growing interest in this type of tourism, that a network of businesses in this sector should be formed and best practices shared.
Source: Report of the European Parliament of 8.3.2017 on women and their role in rural areas (2016/2204 (INI))
SWOT analysis of the women’s chance to employability in MF
Involvement of women in MF - the example of Poland
Women succeed in MF – Polish samples
The 11 ha farm “Zaczarowane Wzgorze” located in Czaslaw is run by two women friends who have transformed it into a beautiful agrotouristic farm. They manage horse breeding and farm-based tourist services (accommodation, gastronomy, education, organisation of events).
Irena Szewczyk inherited from her family a farm named “Wiśniowy Gaj” surrounded by traditional Polish rural landscape. In this 200-year-old traditional farm, she developed her activities towards the production and sale of regional plums, tourism and educational activities.
In the last 15 years, Agnieszka Król has transformed her family farm “Pszczółki” into a recreational/educational center. Besides agricultural activities (beekeeping, honey growing & small livestock farming), the farm provides social services (tourist & educational activities).
“Leśniakówka”, an ecological farm located close to Krakow. It was developed into an agritourism farm with workshops (yoga, art and cooking) and event organisation. The old orchard and wooden architectural buildings are an added value.
There is no clear-cut definition of cultural heritage. It is assumed that cultural heritage is a resource of tangible and intangible things, together with related spiritual values, historical and moral phenomena, recognised as worthy of legal protection for the good of a specific society and its development, and for passing them on to future generations, due to understandable and accepted historical, patriotic, religious, scientific and artistic values that are important for the identity and continuity of political, social and cultural development, proving truths and commemorating historical events, preserving a sense of beauty and civilization community.
Photo. K. Kieljan
Cultural heritage consists of:
The tangible heritage is divided into immovable heritage, including buildings that can themselves contain installed art, and movable heritage, including books, documents, works of art, movable machinery, clothes, and other artifacts that are considered worthy of future preservation. These include objects relevant to archeology, architecture, science and technology with a specific culture.
The intangible heritage includes non-physical aspects in a specific culture. It refers to the ways of behaviour in society, often formal rules operating in a specific cultural context. This includes social and tradition values, customs, aesthetic and spiritual beliefs, language and other aspects of human activity.
Photo. K. Kieljan
Natural heritage is also an important element of society’s heritage, covering rural areas and the natural environment, including flora and fauna, as well as geological elements. This heritage includes cultural landscapes, protection of rare animal breeds and plant species.
Elements of rural cultural heritage:
The tangible heritage:
The intangible heritage :
Cultural heritage has an impact on the socio-economic development of the region on several levels. It is perceived as: the basis of local entrepreneurship, the area of innovation, the competitiveness factor, and finally a market product that satisfies the diverse needs of people and affects the quality of life.
Heritage has the potential to create income and stimulate employment in rural areas, ensuring a better standard of living for residents. Heritage, whose value can be determined, promoted and constantly shared, becomes a product. It can become an important factor in the development of entrepreneurship, enabling the creation of jobs and sources of income for residents, especially in the field of tourism, the manufacturing of regional food products, the production of craft products and the provision of services by representatives of so-called “passing away professions”.
Very important for rural areas is the use of heritage in the development of rural tourism, especially cultural tourism. Tourists willingly visit places to learn about the different manifestations of material and non-material culture: places, historic buildings, cultural landscapes, as well as cultural values, traditions, customs and history. The benefits of rural tourism are diverse. First of all, tourism, by satisfying tourists’ demand for various products and services, generates income and jobs and contributes to the inflow of capital.
The attractiveness of the locality exposing its cultural goods increases its competitiveness, makes it chosen as a place of residence as well as a place of business.
Cultural heritage plays an important role in building social bonds, identity and self-esteem of rural residents, which has a positive impact on the quality of life. The awareness that you are a responsible heir of cultural goods, arouses an emotional attitude towards your own town, creates a sense of community and readiness to take new initiatives for local development. Leaders are emerging who are ready to lead such initiatives.
Photo. K. Kieljan
Cultural heritage is also conducive to ecological and spatial changes. Projects regarding the revitalisation of individual elements of heritage are often associated with giving this heritage new functions (e.g. adaptation of old livestock buildings to rooms for tourists), creation of new jobs (e.g. processing of regional products), and development of tourism (increasing the tourist attractiveness of the area) or restoring the natural heritage of the village.
Depending on the value, elements of heritage may have global, european, national and finally local significance - related to the tradition and history of a specific place, and therefore be subject to various mechanisms of their protection and promotion.
Places that have universal value and are important for people regardless of their origin, culture, religious beliefs, etc. are distinguished by a registration on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Places important for european culture and history receive the European Heritage Label. Individual countries have their own designations for heritage elements especially important for them. Village heritage is a particular heritage, the regional heritage of “small homelands” that builds a sense of community, affects identification with a place, and forms part of a community’s identity
Photo. K. Kieljan
The protection and promotion of heritage are dealt with by relevant institutions and organisations but also by local communities, and finally by a single inhabitant of the village. Heritage preservation is the success of the inhabitants, local government representatives, local leaders and specialists as well as national authorities to preserve the common good. This is served by international and national legal regulations, as well as programmes supporting activities serving the protection and promotion of heritage. These activities can be implemented through various projects, and their financing can be offered by companies and individuals, domestic or foreign grant organisations, public administration, foreign public sources, including EU programmes.
Activities related to the protection and care of tangible heritage objects include: placing historic objects in registers of monuments, on lists of historical monuments, in regional monument records, creating cultural parks, giving forms of nature protection and protection in the local spatial development plan, placing the object in the local revitalisation programme and commune development strategy, security, conservation and anti-destruction work.
Activities to protect the intangible heritage include research and dissemination works on local tradition and history. Geographical, historical or traditional names of a building object, square, street or settlement unit may be protected. Regional and traditional products can be protected by placing them in national and european mechanisms to identify and promote the culinary heritage of the regions.
Activities aimed at protecting and promoting are primarily the promotion and education in the field of rural heritage. Such activities include lessons, museum workshops, heritage days, teaching traditional professions, artistic education, heritage-based entertainment activities: historical reconstructions, festivals, fairs, dissemination and sharing of heritage in the form of entertainment, educational activities of farms, activities of state entities, private and associations to promote heritage. Marketing through advertising and specialist promotional publications, educational programmes and multimedia products, as well as the development of tourist products based on heritage are important.
Cultural heritage can be a source and inspiration to create products, services and economic initiatives by generating employment in numerous sectors: both in the tourism sector as well as construction and real estate, trade and heritage education. Heritage is part of the economy and can be the basis for the development of entrepreneurship and multifunctional activities in the following industries:
Photo. CDR O/Kraków
Photo. K. Kieljan
For rural areas, an important role is played by cognitive, cultural and educational tourism, which determine the need to develop entrepreneurial activities presenting the specificity of the local heritage not only through traditional sightseeing methods but also independent discovery, experience, and taste. Such activities are an opportunity for women in rural areas to develop their own competences, find a job and additional sources of income while enabling tourists to get to know the values of an area, its heritage and culture, rural activities and rural life, authentic interaction with the rural environment and local community.
The most popular forms of entrepreneurial use of heritage in rural areas with using a functioning farm may include:
Photo. Educational Farm “Wiśniowy Gaj”, PL
Of course, it is possible to conduct various activities using simultaneously different elements of tangible and intangible heritage. Such an example is the educational activities of farms, where the potential of many elements of rural heritage is often used simultaneously.
The use of heritage for the development of entrepreneurship can be very diverse, covering a wide spectrum of economic activity, and the combination of traditions (places, products, skills, professions) with innovation (modern methods of processing, presentation, sales) causes that often innovative and competitive products and services are created.
Elements of rural cultural heritage as a potential for the development of multifunctional activities:
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